Historical Highlights 1800AD-1899AD


Second Great Awakening begins at Cane Ridge Revival


Barton Stone and several of his followers break all denominational ties and begin calling themselves merely “Christian—beginning of the “Restoration Movement”


British Parliament votes to abolish slave trade due in large part to William Wilberforce


Restoration Movement (Primitivism)—it takes a prominent place in American Christianity. It is propelled by the desire to return to “NT Christianity” and purge the church of history (confessions/creeds) and tradition—Thomas and Alexander Campbell are key players with Stone


Princeton Theology (Reformed Confessionalism); Archibald Alexander, Charles Hodge, A.A. Hodge, B.B. Warfield, and J. Gresham Machen (ends in 1921); Judson”s, first American sent missionaries head for Burma


Unitarianism picks up adherents (denial of the Trinity)


American Temperance Society is founded, churches are its main source of members


Charles Grandison Finney begins holding revivals and using his “new measures,” revivalist techniques that justify the use of direct public pressure to secure “convictions”


Perfectionism: sparked by the Second Great Awakening, teaches that a second work of the Holy Spirit (after conversion) creates complete happiness and holiness in believer. It is influenced and influences Methodism and the Holiness Movement. It survives today mainly in Pentecostal churches


Mormonism: founded by Joseph Smith, recognizes four scriptures: bible, Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants, and Pearl of Great Price, becomes a powerful Cult in last part of 20th century


Pretribulationism: doctrine that Christ will snatch away Christians before the Great Tribulation, John Nelson Darby is key figure


Millenarianism: a belief in a 1,000 year period of divine order on earth


Transcendentalism: comes out of Deist movement, quasi-religious meditations on union of humans and nature and emphasizes intuition over logic (Emerson and Thoreau)


Revivalism: Religious enthusiasm and intensity, conversion of the unregenerate and spiritual renewal of saved—its main tools are crusades and prayer meetings


Millerites predict the end of the world, October 22, 1844—this group later forms the Seventh-day Adventists in 1863, Ellen White is key figure


Baptist churches split into Southern Baptists and Northern Baptists; baseball invented


Liberalism (modernism): “adapts” Christianity to fit intellectual and social climate of the day (evolution, psychology, etc.)


China Inland Mission (Hudson Taylor) and Salvation Army (William Booth)


Papal Infallibility, belief that when pope speaks ex cathedra (as a pope), he speaks irreformable truth


Dispensationalism: maintains that history is divided into time periods (7+) where man is tested in respect of obedience to some specific revelation of the will of God, he is found wanting and God sends another (Darby and later, Scofield); Jehovah”s Witnesses are formed (Charles Taze Russell)


D.L. Moody conducts large evangelistic meetings in US and UK


The “Gift People” begin speaking in tongues, first recorded occurrence in US


Christian Science: matter is an “evil illusion” but the spirit is real and can generate spontaneously healing (Mary Baker Eddy)


Basketball is invented!


The Five Points of Fundamentalism drawn up to combat growing liberalism (verbal inerrancy, divinity of Jesus, virgin birth, substitutionary atonement, and the physical resurrection and bodily return of Christ)

“Amending the Soil” Christian Education Conference

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